Here, basic principles, particularly those related to data security, must be drawn on throughout data processing [Art. According to Art. This represents a concretization of the principle of data minimization but it is, at this point, subject to a research-related reservation: The obligation to anonymize only arises once it is actually possible, taking into account the research purpose. Where longer term identification of the persons behind the data is necessary, pseudonymization should be preferred.
It must, however, still be impossible to draw any direct conclusions about specific persons. This may include further technical—organizational measures, such as subsequent verification of the processing of personal data or access restrictions, as well as measures aimed at raising awareness among those involved in data processing, or appointing a data protection officer in accordance with Art.
If no adequacy decision exists, various safeguards including security measures must be applied to enable transfers compare the section on adequacy below. If its first-stage permissibility can be determined and it fulfills all relevant requirements outside Chapter V of the GDPR, a data transfer is still only permissible if it is also consistent with at least one of the grounds for authorization listed in Arts.
A distinction must then be made between transfers to the third countries which guarantee an adequate level of data protection Art. The Commission is responsible for determining adequacy [Art. In addition, the CJEU judgment in Schrems —particularly recitals 72 and 73—must be observed, this ruling being the basis for the substantial extension of the conditions for adequacy.
An adequate level of data protection is, therefore, determined in substantive and legal terms primarily via an assessment of the rule of law and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms in the third country, any applicable data protection regulations, and the case law of the CJEU.
The adequate level of data protection is, therefore, a level essentially equivalent to that guaranteed within the EU. For the substantive requirements to be effective and enforceable, there must also be independent supervision of data protection via administrative and judicial remedies by the parties concerned and by supervisory authorities. It also follows from Schrems that, to determine the adequate level of protection, particular attention must be paid to the guarantees of the CFR, since regulations serve to implement Art.
It can, therefore, be stated that an adequate level of protection is one which respects the fundamental values of the EU and the protection of human and fundamental rights; this applies in the context of data protection law specifically to Art. A legitimate Commission decision allowing the transfer of personal data to a third country must, therefore, be measured against these requirements recital GDPR.
If there is no Commission adequacy decision, other legal bases could be drawn on to allow data transfer. It should, however, be noted that, for example, standard contractual clauses and codes of conduct each also require a Commission decision should they be approved and applied throughout the EU. Given the criticism that actual adequacy decisions are often not based on factual adequacy in the third country 45 , other legitimate grounds for processing might also not prevent the level of protection guaranteed by the GDPR from being undermined Art.
Ultimately, as long as adequacy decisions exist, incentives to negotiate stronger data protection rules for transfers including private law instruments will remain limited. The prevailing opinion denies the applicability of the compelling legitimate interest of the controller as defined by Art. Transfer of genomic data for scientific research purposes to third countries, comparable to other member state laws, involves several oversight bodies, institutional review boards, research ethics committees, and data protection authorities.
Such a safeguard could be the involvement of a research ethics committee, as some member states have demonstrated. As adjustment in sector-specific laws is still on the cards, the focus here should be on the role of data protection supervisory authorities in the transfer of data to third countries, in the context of the interaction between the GDPR and the BDSG neu. According to recital GDPR, each supervisory authority should be competent in the territory of its own member state to exercise the powers and perform the tasks conferred on it in accordance with the Regulation.
The annual fee is calculated by the sum of salaries and the risk factors in the company. Depending on the statute of the individual accident insurance institution, the annual fee can be reduced partly, dependant on the OSH performance of the company in relation to its risk collective . In contrast, companies with particularly high accident rates must anticipate a surcharge on their contributions . The accident insurance scheme is a non-profit, pay-as-you-go-scheme, but there is a duty to set up reserves e.
According to Book VII of the German Social Code social accident insurance the objective of the social accident insurance institutions is to prevent occupational accidents and occupational diseases as well as work-related health hazards by all appropriate means prevention and to restore health and work abilities of the insured by all appropriate means in case of an occupational accident or occupational disease rehabilitation , and to pay compensation or pensions for the insured or their bereaved .
Occupational diseases are diseases listed in the Ordinance on Occupational Diseases Berufkskrankheitenverordnung . Rehabilitation is not limited to the medical point: It includes all available means to return the casualty to working life as well as to the private life. In order to fulfil their tasks, the social accident insurance established prevention services Technische Aufsichtsdienste . In case of an occupational accident or an occupational disease, the social accident insurance institutions work closely together with hospitals and doctors in private practice.
However, the accident insurers have their own clinics, which are specialised in the treatment and rehabilitation of casualties and people with occupational diseases. In addition, the German Social Accident Insurance is divided into six regional associations. These regional associations take over common regional tasks in the areas of prevention and rehabilitation.
DGUV attends to the interests of its members and promotes their tasks for the benefit of the insured and the companies. It represents the social accident insurance for industry and trade as well for the public sector face to face with politics, federal, European and other national and international institutions, the social partners, federal courts and the European High Court. Griechenland: Silberstreif am Horizont?! Italien vor den Parlamentswahlen - Was kommt nach Monti? Weltkrieg um Wohlstand und pathologischer Exportboom? Neuer Protektionismus? Towards a Free Trade Agreement with Japan?
Policy Brief for the European Parliament, Debt sustainability analyses for Italy, Spain and Portugal : assessment and recommendations Intereconomics, Bd. On the future of the EMU: Is more fiscal integration indispensable?
An interview with Susan Bernofsky. Prevention of the first occurrence of neural-tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. Here, we present the work of some of the resident artists. Although different forms of support in pregnancy and during the post partum period show positive effects on the attitude to breast-feeding, it is not possible to provide more specific details, e. The extent of the individual health risk to the child is difficult to predict and is affected by maternal and fetal characteristics. Deutsches Arzteblatt international. In Germany, about a third of women of childbearing age are overweight or obese 5.
Intereconomics, Vol. Das aktuelle Niedrigzinsumfeld Horizonte 20xx, Dr. Klein Wohnungswirtschaftsplattform, , S. Good, M.
Latzer, S. Schmitz, G. Selgin, E. Streissler, M. Streissler, L. White, L. Yeager "Carl Menger is of immense importance in the development of monetary economics. He built on the work of Adam Smith, showing how money evolved as a result of individuals trying to better themselves and was not, as some have claimed, an invention of a benevolent state.
But despite Menger's importance, there is remarkably little written on him in English, and some even of his most important work remains untranslated. This excellent book goes far to remedy this situation. It is a major contribution to the history of economic thought. Furthermore it develops Menger's analysis of transactions so as to illuminate and advance discussions on the prospects for electronic money, an important topic in modern monetary theory. This is a fascinating, well written, and important book.
Menger has been enormously influential on the development of money — and his influence has been increasing in recent years. It can now reach the audience it deserves.
It has been set in context with admirable contributions from several leading scholars in the field. It will be widely used. The volume will appeal equally to historians of economic thought and to economists who wish to explore the implications of the recent emergence of electronic money. Seldom has the relevance of the Mengerian research tradition for understanding the evolution of contemporany social institutions been more powerfully demonstrated.
Schmitz is a very exciting book. It creates an intellectual link between the past and the future. It makes it possible for readers to better know the fundamental insights of Carl Menger about money; but it also provides an outstanding analysis of possible developments of electronic money, demonstrating that they cannot be understood without looking back at the theoretical debate about money initiated by Carl Menger. For those interested in money and its future, this book is unique. The project launched by the Czech Academy of Sciences builds on the results of the ASO project, in which a comparative empirical analysis presented the first experiences of the Constitutional courts of the Czech Republic, Hungary and Austria with regard to EC law.
The follow-up project of aims at an update of the empirical data and intends to discuss the recent developments of the constitutional jurisprudence and identify potential friction zones between the supranational and domestic constitutional spheres. In this context, the question will be addressed as to how state theories are gradually modified by the Europeanisation process. Roland Hierzinger Dr. Monika Mokre Mag. Der erste Abschnitt dieses Projektes bietet eine kritische Literaturstudie zu den Auswirkungen des eGeldes auf die Geldpolitik mit besonderem Augenmerk auf die Modellierung des Geldmarktes in den jeweiligen eGeld-Modellen sowie auf die Rolle der Recheneinheitsfunktion des Geldes.
Zudem modellieren wir den Zusammenhang zwischen dem institutionellen Wandel des gesamtwirtschaftlichen Zahlungssystems, dem Geldmarkt und der Geldpolitik. Latzer Michael Latzer Hg.
Das Buch beinhaltet u. Besteht ein Reformbedarf bei der Marktmachtkontrolle? Natascha Just Koordination Mag. Stefan Schmitz MSc Dr. Peter-Paul Sint MMag. Peter Slominski Mag. Selbst- und Ko-Regulierung bilden somit einen zentralen Baustein in der neuen Rolle des Staates, bzw. Dies in verschiedenen Wirtschaftssektoren, so auch im konvergenten und globalisierten Mediamatik-Sektor. Florian Saurwein MMag. Peter Slominski.
The book is not a collection of papers but a monograph. It draws on arguments that I have published in various essays over the last five years, but attempts to develop them in more systematic way. My approach combines normative political theory with a comparative and contextual analysis of institutional arrangements in democratic states. The basic idea is that ethnonational conflicts are often best understood not as clashes between different cultural identities and values, but as conflicts over the boundaries of political communities.
Rather than self-government being only instrumentally important for defending a certain cultural identity or way of life, I think of self-government as intrinsically important and as the core issue in most nationalist conflicts. In my view liberal democratic theory lacks coherent answers to questions about the legitimacy of political boundaries and to demands for their revision. My book tries to close this gap by examining the various contexts in which claims for self-government arise.
In the first part I suggest a conceptual and normative distinction between self-government and self-determination.